1. Republic Day
Counted among the three national holidays of the country together with the Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti (2 October), Republic Day of India (26 January) is a very popular national celebration. This event marks the proud founding of the republic tradition of one of the largest democracies on the earth.
2. Why is Republic Day Celebrated?
Republic day is meant to honour the date in which the country’s constituent assembly adopted the Constitution specially framed for the nation. On 26 January 1950, the newly drafted constitution of India came to be enforced by way of replacing the Government of India Act 1935. Since then, this day is celebrated as the Republic Day of India year on year as a national event with a public holiday declared in all states of the country.
3. Why the date 26 January chosen for the celebration
On 26 January 1930, the Indian National Congress declared Puna Swaraj or complete Independence of the country from foreign rule. This proclamation enjoined the members of the congress as well as the band of Indian nationalists to fight for the independence of the country and it was also decided that this day shall be celebrated as the independence day of the country. Later when India got its independence on another day (15 August), it was decided that the constituent assembly would enforce the Constitution on 26 January 1950, though it was adopted on 26 November 1949
4. The need for a Constitution
India got its freedom from the British rule on 15 August 1947. The freedom of the country was brought about by the bloodless and peaceful resistance envisioned by the Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi who championed the way of non-violent protest of a kind and scale that was unprecedented in the history. When India was declared as the constitutional monarchy on this day, the nation still did not have a permanent constitution. Therefore, on 28 August 1947, the drafting committee was established under the leadership of Dr.B.R. Ambedkar.
5. Constitution is enforced
The drafting committee submitted a draft of the constitution to the Assembly on 4th November 1947. Assembly organized a series of sessions to discuss the constitution. The process that stretched over 166 days was spread over 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. All these sessions were open to the public.
6. Constitution is enforced -2
Following several deliberations and modifications, the Assembly consisting of 308 members prepared two handwritten copies of the constitution, one in Hindi and the other in English duly signed by all the members. After its signing on 24 January 1950, it was enforced throughout the nation two days later on 26 January 1950.
7. Celebrations in the country
The main Republic Day event is organized year on year on this date in the capital of India New Delhi. In a ceremony held in Rajpath, the President of India presides over the event and a colourful and ceremonious parade is organized in honour of the nation from Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan along the Rajpath, through India Gate.