"Both leaders had a comprehensive discussion on bilateral issues of mutual interest, specially in trade and investment, energy, defence and tourism," External Affairs Ministry spokesperson Raveesh Kumar tweeted.
Modi and Putin earlier met in the Russian resort city of Sochi in May following the latter's re-election as the Russian President for the fourth time.
The Russian leader is expected to visit India later in 2018 for the annual bilateral summit.
The relationship between India and Russia was elevated to that of a Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership during Putin's visit to India in 2010.
On Thursday, following the 10th BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) Summit here, a Johannesburg Declaration was issued, calling for sustainable growth of global trade and expressing the determination to work together to strengthen multi-lateralism.